TENSES

I. PRESENT TENSE

  • 1) Simple Present Tense
  • 2) Present Continuous Tense
  • 3) Present Perfect Tense
  • 4) Present Perfect Continuous Tense

II. PAST TENSE

  • 1) Simple Past Tense
  • 2) Past Continuous Tense
  • 3) Past Perfect Tense
  • 4) Past Perfect Continuous Tense

III. FUTURE TENSE

  • 1) Simple Future Tense
  • 2) Future Continuous Tense
  • 3) Future Perfect Tense
  • 4) Future Perfect Continuous Tense

IV. FUTURE PAST TENSE

  • 1) Future Past Tense
  • 2) Future Past Continuous Tense
  • 3) Future Past Perfect Tense
  • 4) Future Past Perfect Continuous Tense

 

PRESENT TENSE

1. Simple Present Tense (Bentuk Waktu Sekarang Kebiasaan atau Kenyataan)

            Pattern :

            (+) S + V1 + s/es + O

            (-) S + do/does + not + V1 + O                      

            (?) Do/Does + S + V1 + O

            Time Signal : Every, Usually, Always, Never, Seldom, etc.

Example :

            (+) She goes to the market everyday.

            (-)  She doesn’t go to the market everyday.

            (?) Does she go to the market everyday?

 

2. Present Continuous Tense (Bentuk Waktu Sekarang sedang Berlangsung)

            Pattern :

            (+) S + To be + VIng + O

            (-)  S + To be + not + VIng + O

            (?) To be + S + VIng + O

            To be : is >> She, He, It

                                    am >> I

                                    are >> They, We, You

            Time Signal : Now, At Present, This Moment, Today, etc.

Example :

            (+)  He is playing soccer now.

            (-)  He isn’t playing soccer now.

            (?) Is he playing soccer now?

 3. Present Perfect Tense (Bentuk Sekarang Telah Selesai)

            Pattern :

            (+) S + To be + V3 + O

            (-)  S + To be + not + V3 + O

            (?) To be + S + V3 + O

            To be : has >> She, He, It

                                    have >> They, We, I, You

            Time Signal : Since…, For…

Example :

            (+)       He has taught here since 1994.

            (-)  He hasn’t taught here since 1994.

            (?) Has he taught here since 1994?

 4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense (Bentuk Waktu Sekarang Selesai Sedang Berlangsung)

            Pattern :

            (+) S + To be + been + VIng + O

            (-)  S + To be + not + been + VIng + O

            (?) To be + S + been + VIng + O

            To be : has >> She, He, It

                                    have >> They, We, I, You

            Time Signal : Since…, For…, Lately, Recently, Long, This Week, Still, etc.

 Example :

            (+) She has been studying for three hours.

            (-)  She hasn’t been studying for three hours.

            (?) Has she been studying for three hours?

 

PAST TENSE

1. Simple Past Tense (Bentuk Lampau Sederhana)

            Pattern :

            (+) S + V2 + O

            (-) S + did + not + V1 + O                  

            (?) Did + S + V1 + O

            Time Signal : Yesterday, Last Night, a Moment Ago, etc.

 Example :

            (+) They cleaned the classroom yesterday.

            (-)  They didn’t clean the classroom yesterday.

            (?)  Did they clen the classroom yesterday?

 

2. Past Continuous Tense (Bentuk Waktu Lampau Yang Sedang Berlangsung)

            Pattern :

            (+) S + To be + VIng + O

            (-)  S + To be + not + VIng + O

            (?) To be + S + VIng + O

            To be : Was >> I, She, He, It

                                    Were >> They, We, You

            Time Signal : When, While, As.

 Example :

            (+) I was writing a letter when the bell rang.

            (-)  I wasn’t writing a letter when the bell rang.

            (?) Was I writing a letter when the bell rang?

 

 3. Past Perfect Tense (Bentuk Waktu Lampau Telah Selesai)

            Pattern :

            (+) S + Had + V3 + O

            (-)  S + Had + not + V3 + O

            (?) Had + S + V3 + O

            Time Signal : When…, Before…, …after, …until

Example :

            (+) We had copied the lesson before our teacher came to the class.

            (-)  We hadn’t copied the lesson before our teacher came to the class.

            (?) Had we copied the lesson before our teacher came to the class.

 

4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense (Bentuk Waktu Lampau Selesai Sedang Berlangsung)

            Pattern :

            (+) S + Had + been + VIng + O

            (-)  S + Had + not + been + VIng + O

            (?) Had + S + been + VIng + O

            Time Signal : When…, After… .

 Example :

            (+) She had been living here for 3 years when I came.

            (-)  She hadn’t been living here for 3 years when I came.

            (?) Had She been living here for 3 years when I came?

 

FUTURE TENSE

1. Simple Future Tense (Bentuk Waktu Akan Datang)

            Pattern :

            (+) S + To be + V1 + O

            (-) S + To be + not + V1 + O             

            (?) To be + S + V1 + O

            To be : Shall >> I, We

                                    Will >> They, You, She, He, It

            Time Signal : Tomorrow, Soon, Next week, Later, etc.

 Example :

            (+) We shall go to England tomorrow.

            (-)  We shan’t go to England tomorrow.

            (?) Shall we go to England tomorrow?

 2. Future Continuous Tense (Bentuk Waktu Akan Datang Sedang Berlangsung)

            Pattern :

            (+) S + To be + be + VIng + O

            (-)  S + To be + not + be + VIng + O

            (?) To be + S + be + VIng + O

            To be : Shall >> I, We

                                    Will >> They, You, She, He, It

            Time Signal : At this time tomorrow, At nine o’clock tonight, etc.

 

Example :

            (+) I shall be studying if you come at seven o’clock tonight.

            (-)  I shan’t be studying if you come at seven o’clock tonight.

            (?) Shall I be studying if you come at seven o’clock tonight?

 

 3. Future Perfect Tense (Bentuk Waktu Akan Datang Telah Selesai)

            Pattern :

            (+) S + To be + have + V3 + O

            (-)  S + To be + not + have + V3 + O

            (?) To be + S + have + V3 + O

            To be : Shall >> I, We

                                    Will >> They, You, She, He, It

            Time Signal : By The End Of This Week, By Four p.m. Today, This Evening, etc.

 

Example :

            (+) I shall have finished my work tomorrow night.

            (-)  I shan’t have finished my work tomorrow night.

            (?) Shall I have finished my work tomorrow night?

 

4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense (Bentuk Waktu Akan Datang Selesai Sedang Berlangsung)

            Pattern :

            (+) S + To be + have been + VIng + O

            (-)  S + To be + not + have been + VIng + O

            (?) To be + S + have been+ VIng + O

            To be : Shall >> I, We

                                    Will >> They, You, She, He, It

            Time Signal : By The End Of This Year, By Ten a.m. Tomorrow, By Next January, etc.

 Example :

            (+) They will have been living here for three years by next June.

            (-) They won’t have been living here for three years by next June.

            (?) Will they have been living here for three years by next June?

 

FUTURE PAST TENSE

1. Future Past Tense (Bentuk Waktu Akan Datang Di Masa Lampau)

            Pattern :

            (+) S + To be + V1 + O

            (-) S + To be + not + V1 + O             

            (?) To be + S + V1 + O

            To be : Should >> I, We

                                    Would >> They, You, She, He, It

            Time Signal : Yesterday, Last Night, Just Now, etc.

 Example :

            (+) She would take me to the party last night, but I went out.

            (-) She wouldn’t take me to the party last night.

            (?) Would she take me to the party last night?

 

 2. Future Past Continuous Tense (Bentuk Waktu Akan Datang Sedang Berlangsung di Waktu    Lampau)

            Pattern :

            (+) S + To be + be + VIng + O

            (-)  S + To be + not + be + VIng + O

            (?) To be + S + be + VIng + O

            To be : Should >> I, We

                                    Would >> They, You, She, He, It

            Time Signal : At this time tomorrow, At nine o’clock tonight, etc.

 Example :

            (+) I should be being here in time last night if I didn’t get any trouble on the way.

            (-) I shan’t be being here in time last night if I didn’t get any trouble on the way.

            (?) Should I be being here in time last night if I didn’t get any trouble on the way?

  3. Future Past Perfect Tense (Bentuk Waktu Akan Datang Telah Di Masa Lampau)

            Pattern :

            (+) S + To be + have + V3 + O

            (-)  S + To be + not + have + V3 + O

            (?) To be + S + have + V3 + O

            To be : Should >> I, We

                                    Would >> They, You, She, He, It

            Time Signal : …if…

            Dengan ketentuan: Future Past Perfect Tense + if + Past Perfect

 Example :

            (+) We should have graduated if we had studied hard.

            (-) We shouldn’t have graduated if we had studied hard.

            (?) Should we have graduated if we had studied hard?

 4. Future Past Perfect Continuous Tense (Bentuk Waktu Akan Datang Selesai Sedang Berlangsung Di Masa Lampau)

            Pattern :

            (+) S + To be + have been + VIng + O

            (-)  S + To be + not + have been + VIng + O

            (?) To be + S + have been+ VIng + O

            To be : Should >> I, We

                                    Would >> They, You, She, He, It

            Time Signal : By Last Year, By Last Month, By Last January, etc.

 Example :

            (+) She would have been teaching for ten years by last year.

            (-) She wouldn’t have been teaching for ten years by last year.

            (?) Would she have been teaching for ten years by last year?

 

 

 

One Response

  1. tq…………..

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